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Emerson invited Margaret Fuller, Elizabeth Hoar and Sarah Ripley for dinner at his home before the meeting to ensure that they would be present for the evening get-together.
Fuller would prove to be an important figure in transcendentalism.
) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
Emerson's "nature" was more philosophical than naturalistic: "Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul." Emerson is one of several figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world." He took outside jobs to cover his school expenses, including as a waiter for the Junior Commons and as an occasional teacher working with his uncle Samuel and aunt Sarah Ripley in Waltham, Massachusetts. Augustine, Florida, where he took long walks on the beach and began writing poetry. Augustine he made the acquaintance of Prince Achille Murat, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Murat was two years his senior; they became good friends and enjoyed one another's company.
Carlyle in particular was a strong influence on him; Emerson would later serve as an unofficial literary agent in the United States for Carlyle, and in March 1835, he tried to persuade Carlyle to come to America to lecture.
Emerson returned to the United States on October 9, 1833, and lived with his mother in Newton, Massachusetts.
Emerson wrote on a number of subjects, never espousing fixed philosophical tenets, but developing certain ideas such as individuality, freedom, the ability for mankind to realize almost anything, and the relationship between the soul and the surrounding world.At one point, he attended a meeting of the Bible Society while a slave auction was taking place in the yard outside.He wrote, "One ear therefore heard the glad tidings of great joy, whilst the other was regaled with 'Going, gentlemen, going!He went to Switzerland, and had to be dragged by fellow passengers to visit Voltaire's home in Ferney, "protesting all the way upon the unworthiness of his memory". He was greatly moved by the organization of plants according to Jussieu's system of classification, and the way all such objects were related and connected. Richardson says, "Emerson's moment of insight into the interconnectedness of things in the Jardin des Plantes was a moment of almost visionary intensity that pointed him away from theology and toward science".Moving north to England, Emerson met William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Thomas Carlyle.I wish to learn this language, not that I may know a new grammar, but that I may read the great book that is written in that tongue. In July 1835, he bought a house on the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike in Concord, Massachusetts, which he named Bush; it is now open to the public as the Ralph Waldo Emerson House.On September 1, 1837, women attended a meeting of the Transcendental Club for the first time.Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay "Nature".Following this work, he gave a speech entitled "The American Scholar" in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.His disagreements with church officials over the administration of the Communion service and misgivings about public prayer eventually led to his resignation in 1832.As he wrote, "This mode of commemorating Christ is not suitable to me. As one Emerson scholar has pointed out, "Doffing the decent black of the pastor, he was free to choose the gown of the lecturer and teacher, of the thinker not confined within the limits of an institution or a tradition".