Definition of backdating
When a nonprofit organization receives a government grant, the government is more likely to listen to views of the people involved with the organization and potentially help those people network with others in the same field or help with related issues.After receiving a check for a government grant, detailed reports accounting for how the money is spent during the grant period and what accomplishments or failures occur must be documented and submitted according to various deadlines. For example, an economics program may be designed for strengthening empirical and theoretical economic analysis, as well as the methods for rigorous research on economic behavior.A normal postsurgery PSA level was soon agreed upon, given that with nearly all prostate tissue removed, it had to be very close to zero.Such was not the case with radiation, however, because PSA-secreting prostate was left intact. Some of the first publications using PSA as a measure of outcome defined successful radiation as a posttreatment PSA level ≤ 4 ng/m L; it was soon discovered, however, that this level might be normal before therapy but too high for an irradiated prostate with a markedly changed secretory capacity.[2-4] Much discussion ensued as to what the appropriate level should be. We saw a rapid transition to using this marker as an indicator of treatment efficacy as opposed to waiting long periods for local or distant disease to become clinically evident.Receiving a government grant is a sign an individual or nonprofit organization has a significant, positive impact on the community.Other grantors view this as a sign they should provide grants for the project as well.Although we are lucky enough to have a marker in the treatment of prostate cancer to predict prognosis before therapy and outcome afterwards, it has taken over 15 years to determine how to best use it, and recent long-term outcome studies have raised several issues along with options for improvement.While little controversy surrounds the prognostic use of this marker in choosing therapy, we are still exploring treatment failure definitions, their application across unlike therapeutic modalities, and the utility of early documentation of recurrence and associated salvage therapy.
As studies were conducted, PSA was also found to be a surrogate for tumor burden and proved its value in pretreatment prognosis and therapeutic decision-making.
Major criticisms of the ASTRO definition included the lack of consideration of laboratory variation and standard error, the extensive period of time (which was follow-up interval- dependent) required to document three PSA rises, the bias associated with backdating the failure date, the potential for greater sensitivity and specificity of other definitions in predicting clinical failure, and the substantial difference between this and surgical definitions of failure.
Several methods have been proposed to deal with the areas of concern.
Grants support critical recovery initiatives, innovative research and other programs listed in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA).
Because government grants are funded by tax dollars, they require stringent compliance and reporting measures for ensuring the money is well-spent.