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Their line of reasoning is that, is an applicant with an SAT score of 2200 (out of a possible 2400) that much more qualified, or likely to succeed in college, compared to an applicant with a score of 2000?
In response, supporters of affirmative action note that affirmative action only provides equal access and opportunity, not equal outcome.
Johnson gave a very famous speech about it in 1965: You do not take a person who has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him up to the starting line, and then tell him that he's free to race against all the others and still justly believe that you have been completely fair.
Later, President Nixon was the first to set up specific federal guidelines to implement affirmative action policies.
Affirmative action was first developed in the early 1960s under President Kennedy, who said that government should take "affirmative action" to address the inequality and discrimination that Blacks still experience.
President Johnson strongly supported this policy and expanded it.